Happy Hobbit Day! (an article)

Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, and his nephew Frodo Baggins, hero of Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, shared a September 22nd birthdate. Accordingly, that day is annually celebrated as Hobbit Day, and the entire week is deemed to be “Tolkien Week”. In honor of this year’s festivities, Biblio.com just published my article “Beyond the Hobbit and the Rings – Five Other Works by Tolkien”. It was difficult to pick just five, because Tolkien wrote so many brilliant and quirky articles and essays during his lifetime. Does anyone have any other favorites that I had to leave out?

“The Fortsas Bibliohoax” – now published on Biblio.com



The catalogue printed by Renier Chalon for the Fortsas “sale”. [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons {{PD-1923}}.

 “The Fortsas Bibliohoax, or how a Belgian collector fooled book lovers for the fun of it”

I wrote this article for Biblio.com‘s Book Collecting blog a few months ago now, but I only just found out that it was published. The Fortsas Bibliohoax, an elaborate prank perpetrated by a mid-nineteenth century book lover, is a hilarious story that was so much fun to research. It’s a perfect example of truth sometimes being stranger (and cooler) than fiction, and I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I did writing about it.

Gargoyles to Call My Own


Gargoyle collecting isn’t among the most popular of hobbies, so I may be on the road to becoming a trendsetter. I purchased these two little grotesques at the New York Renaissance Faire this past weekend. I’ve named them Toulouse and Berlioz in honor of one of my favorite Disney movies, The Aristocats. According to the salesperson, Toulouse is a grotesque baby goat and Berlioz a baby lion. I tried to find some real medieval goat and lion grotesques for comparison, but all I came up with was carvings of lions eating goats. Let’s hope these two get along better than their historic predecessors.

I bought my grotesques from a cool little shop called Sales From the Crypt, which also sells many other medieval and medieval-inspired works. My friends and I were particularly taken with the reproduction Lewis chessmen, and I’m considering a set of carved faces based on Oxford University gargoyles for my next acquisition.

If you could have your own gargoyle or grotesque, what would it look like?

Hudson River School Day


Inside Thomas Cole’s studio. (All photos in this post are by me.)

The photos in this post are from my visit to the Catskills last weekend, where I spent a day to see the homes of Hudson River School painters Thomas Cole and Frederick Edwin Church. As I’m sure I’ve mentioned before, I am a great lover of the Hudson River School, and I’ve wanted to visit these two houses for some time but haven’t had the chance until now. Cole’s and Church’s houses are about a five-minute drive away from each other on opposite sides of the Hudson River.


Cedar Grove, the Catskill, NY home of Hudson River School painter Thomas Cole.

Thomas Cole’s house, entitled “Cedar Grove”, was pretty much what I expected for – simple but elegant with a spacious wraparound porch allowing lovely views of the Catskills beyond. It was exciting to look out and compare the view with Cole’s several paintings of it that were handily reproduced nearby. Cole’s house and belongings were modest without seeming impoverished, though I do know they struggled financially at times. Based on the family objects in display inside and the tour guide’s narrative, I got the sense that Cole and his family valued artistry, intellect, and religion over being wealthy and fashionable. The grounds are beautiful, but smaller and less remote than I expected. They were originally much more expansive, though most were owned by Cole’s father-in-law rather than the artist himself.


“Tower by Moonlight” by Thomas Cole, c. 1838.

My favorite part of the tour was the “old studio”, the converted barn that Cole worked in for the majority of his time on the property. It was rustic and cozy, and I enjoyed experiencing the environment in which Cole painted his masterpieces. An exhibit inside the main house described his artistic process in greater detail, from his interest in color theory to how he mixed his pigments. I also got to go into the new studio, which Cole used in the last year of his life. It has recently been restored and is now an exhibition space. The current show addresses Cole’s interest in architecture, including the architectural elements in his paintings as well as the two or three architectural projects he completed in his career. The highlight of the exhibition was his famous The Architect’s Dream, temporarily on loan from its current owner. Until I saw it up close, I never realized how many people are in the image. Hundreds of tiny figures crowd the porches, terraces, and ledges of the structures in the painting. In general, I was surprised by how much detail he included in all of his works that you don’t show up in photographs. In addition to the works on display in the new studio, quite a few of Cole’s paintings hang inside the house. I was particularly taken by a strange scene of a dark and stormy outcropping with a scary-looking horseman in the foreground. According to our guide, it was cut from a larger (but equally atypical) religious painting. Bleak and ominous, it was much more what I would expect from a German Romantic painter than from Cole, and I was quite drawn to its unusualness.


Frederick Edwin Church’s home, Olana, in Hudson, NY.

Frederick Edwin Church was Thomas Cole’s student who grew to be far more commercially successful than his teacher. His home, Olana, is a fantastical castle he designed based on the architecture he observed in his extensive global travels. The overall structure is Persian or Moorish in style, with colorful exterior mosaics, windows and doors crowned by ogee arches, striped awnings above colonnaded porches, and numerous towers and turrets. Inside, this pseudo-Islamic taste prevails in the main architectural features, but individual rooms’ decoration pay tribute to different cultures of the world, including medieval European, Chinese, Indian, and South American. Copies of old master paintings hang in the medieval dining room, while the studio displays his collection of Central and South American sculpture, and paintings by Cole and other Hudson River School artists hangs beside Church’s throughout the house. Unfortunately, the house is rather dark even on a sunny day, and I couldn’t enjoy the art as well as I would have liked. However, I still enjoyed Church’s massive painting of Petra in Jordan, which hangs above a fireplace on the ground floor. An exhibition on the second floor discussed the influence of German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt on Church’s travels and work.


The view from Olana.

Sitting high up in the mountains, Olana has an unrivaled view of the Hudson River. Church carefully cultivated the landscape of his sprawling property; he had several winding roads made to drive to and from the house and even commissioned a man-made lake! According to one of the docents, he also planted hundreds of trees, and I was surprised to notice that more trees are visible at both Church’s and Cole’s residences now than appear in the artists’ depictions of those same views. Every aspect of Olana’s landscape, building, and collection has been meticulously preserved since the last Church family member left. One of the docents said it is most likely the best-preserved artist’s residence of its age in the world. It certainly presents a huge contrast to Thomas Cole’s simple home, paralleling the Hudson River School’s great rise in popularity between the two artists’ generations. While Cole spent years building up his patronage, Church became successful at a very young age and achieved widespread acclaim during his lifetime. His style is different than Cole’s – more colorful and dramatic, perhaps – but clearly related.


Antiquities and curiosities at Olana.

Speaking of related, the curators at both the Cedar Grove and Olana have recently began making an effort to connect with contemporary art they see as related to Cole’s and Church’s art. At Cole’s home, works by local artist Jason Middlebrook are hanging throughout the house. Geometric abstract paintings on leftover pieces of lumber, his works are aesthetically dissimilar to Cole’s but clearly related in their interest in the nature and preservation of the Catskill region. Middlebrook is apparently the first in a series of 21st-century artists whose works will be displayed in the house. I love the idea highlighting contemporary artists “in conversation with Cole”, and the series’s title suggests, but struggle with the aesthetics of displaying these works inside the home. At Olana, an exhibition in a small outbuilding near the visitors’ center displayed twenty-one artists’ designs for a summer house at Olana. Documentary evidence apparently suggests that such a structure once existed, but no indication of its appearance can be found, so Olana asked these artists to imagine and render what it might look like. The results were everything from historically-respectful buildings harmonizing with the main house to fantastical multi-tiered pools on pedestals. I wish I had seen the main house before this exhibition, as I think I would have been able to better appreciate it. I also wish I had reserved slots on a guided tour in advance. They fill up quickly, as I learned, and the self-guided tour is not nearly as informative.


The strange Thomas Cole painting that I found so compelling.

For any art lover in the Catskill area, I would highly recommend visiting Olana and the Thomas Cole National Historic Site. There’s also the Hudson River School Art Trail, an unofficial walking or hiking trail of areas and views important to the Hudson River School and its artists. I didn’t get to walk the trail beyond the two houses, but I can’t imagine the views get any less beautiful as the trail progresses. I hope that all the rest of you had a nice summer. Did any of you get to have art or history-related adventures, too? If so, I would love to hear about them!


Me waiting to be let into Olana.

Gargoyle of the Day: Buen Retiro Park, Madrid


Fountain of the Fallen Angel in Buen Retiro Park, Madrid, Spain. Photo by Ulleskelf via Flickr [Creative Commons].

These gargoyles may not be on a building, but they are certainly serving their proper purpose. Located on the base of the Fountain of the Fallen Angel (Fuente del Ángel Caído) in Madrid’s Buen Retiro Park, these eight devil figures spit water out of their mouths and the mouths of their reptilian pets. The statue, designed and constructed between 1877 and 1885 and inspired by John Milton’s Paradise Lost, was designed by Ricardo Bellver. The devil-encrusted base was designed by Francisco Jareño.

American Art of the Week: Houston Street by George Luks


Houston Street by George Luks (1917). Saint Louis Museum of Art. Photo via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain].

George Luks (1866-1933) was an American social realist painter. He is known best for his images of New York City, specifically its working-class and immigrant neighborhoods, and his energetic style seems to suit these scenes’ vibrancy perfectly. He also studied and painted in Europe. Along with fellow American painters of urban life, Luks was part of the so-called Ashcan School that stood against academic traditions of the time. Houston Street, characteristic of Luks’s usual style and subject matter, depicts street vendors in lower Manhattan.

Gargoyle of the Day: Turnblad Mansion, Minneapolis, USA


Turnblad Mansion Gargoyle. Photo by the American Swedish Institute via Flickr [Creative Commons].

I belong to a wonderful group on Facebook called Mansions of the Gilded Age. Last month, I asked some of my fellow group members whether they knew of any gargoyles on Gilded Age homes. They came back with quite a few great examples, including the Turnblad Mansion in Minneapolis. Commissioned by Swedish-born newspaper publisher Swan Turnblad and his wife Christina in 1903, the house was designed by architects Christopher Boehme and Victor Cordella in the Chateauesque style. Popular in America and Canada at the time, Chateauesque got its name from the French country homes it emulated.

Always keen to honor their homeland, the Turnblads donated the mansion to the  American Swedish Institute in 1929; it is unclear whether they were also the institute’s founders. The American Swedish Institute still operates in the Turnblad Mansion and other buildings today, with a mission “to share experiences around themes of culture, migration, the environment and the arts, informed by enduring links to Sweden”.

The Turnblad Mansion is home to several true gargoyles (as opposed to non-functional grotesques). It appears that the creature shown above was pressed into service as the ring bearer at a wedding held in the mansion. In the  exterior view of this Swedish-American answer to Cinderella’s castle, you can see the profiles of several other gargoyles projecting from the corners of the front and side porticos.

Sources: “Swan Turnblad”, Wikipedia.org, accessed 5/29/16. “American Swedish Institute”, Wikipedia.org, accessed 5/29/16. “Turnblad Mansion”, American Swedish Institute, accessed 5/29/16.

So many thanks to Mansions of the Gilded Age TJ Bren for introducing me to this beautiful house and gargoyles!


Exterior of the Turnblad Mansion, Minneapolis. Photo by the American Swedish Institute via Flickr [Creative Commons].